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        上海構建“非遺在社區”傳承傳播網 拉近非遺與居民距離
        ( 2019年6月9日 11 : 49 )

        來源:解放日報


        上海構建“非遺在社區”傳承傳播網

          在浦東,浦東說書市級傳承人陳建緯忙著輔導學生;在寶山,土生土長的當地人聚在一起“挑花”的場面又重新出現了;在黃浦,五里橋的不少居民已經掌握了上海燈彩“搓、扎、剪、裱、糊、描”基本工藝,能合作完成一盞盞小燈彩。

          昨天是文化和自然遺產日。上海自去年全面啟動“非遺在社區”工作,至今已率先完成了傳承人在市、區、街鎮三級文化設施布點全覆蓋,構建了16個區、219個街鎮社區文化活動中心、363名傳承人的基本傳承傳播網絡,形式多樣、內容豐富的傳承傳播活動在全市常態化、規模化開展,并不斷向居村、校園、商圈等更廣泛的社區延展。“每個街鎮有非遺、每個社區有傳人、每個設施有活動”是非遺“生活化”的真實寫照。

          以生活為載體活態傳承

          非物質文化遺產是產生于農耕社會的文化形態,隨著生活方式和觀念的變遷,非遺的生存空間一度被擠壓。“從‘非遺進社區’到‘非遺在社區’,一字之差,卻體現了讓非遺回歸其孕育發展的社區,回歸當地民眾生活的理念。”上海市文化和旅游局有關負責人表示。

          在多年來的實踐中,各區使出十八般武藝,摸索出一條條非遺保護的可行路徑。黃浦區是上海老城廂,截至今年1月,區內共有67個非遺項目,涵蓋傳統技藝、曲藝、傳統美術、民俗、傳統醫藥等多個類別。自2011年起,“上海燈彩”市級傳承人呂協莊開始在五里橋社區授課,邁出“非遺在社區”第一步,累計教授學生3000余人次。“五里橋社區的特點是海派非遺多,傳承人進社區授課,很受大家歡迎。”居民李愛華說。此外,海派微雕、海派連環畫、滬語春秋、海派老歌也扎根社區,拉近了非遺與居民的距離。

          虹口區非遺中心堅持“保護為主、搶救第一、合理利用、加強管理”的方針,搶救、采錄音頻資料近50余小時,先后編輯出版《虹口33個文化鏡頭》《中國民間故事全書上海·虹口卷》《石庫門生活口述》《精武歷史典籍》等十余本書籍,同時設立7家非遺傳習基地,舉辦《石庫門里弄風情展》《生肖年民俗風情展》《百年精武展》《海派翡翠雕刻展》等近百場展覽展示活動,大大增強了非遺在社區的傳播活力。

          非遺的本質,是以人為核心、以生活為載體的活態傳承實踐,是一個民族、一個地區、一個鄉村乃至一個社區的生活方式。寶山區日前新增了7個鄉村非遺傳習點,傳承人進村授課,普及非遺。“在塘灣村,婆婆阿姨聚在一起挑花的場面又回來了。”羅涇十字挑花傳承人鄭曉蓉感慨。一針、一線、一塊布,不繃架,不事先打樣,完全按照布的勢流見縫插針,正面十字交叉,背面一字點狀整齊排列,說的便是十字挑花。通過“非遺在社區”,鄭曉蓉與其他傳承人帶著十字挑花的文創設計回到鄉間,杯墊、書簽、小鏡子很快吸引了時間比較富余的村民。“老物件需要保留,但也要創新,讓承載非遺技藝的物品,重新成為生活中用得到的日用品。”

          非遺源于民間,也應該回歸民間。鄭曉蓉說,走進社區、鄉村,傳承人也有不少驚喜,“年長村民對傳統紋樣很熟悉,婚嫁習俗的用法、系身邊上插角的圖案,都是從她們口中得知的。非遺在社區,既是為了傳承技藝,也是為了在鄉間田野挖掘、收集、整理非遺的內涵。”

          社區傳承離不開“創新”

          50期展演、83個音樂類非遺項目、700多名傳承人,這一串數字背后,是徐匯區堅持了4年的非遺品牌“國樂雅韻”。6月6日晚,最新一期“國樂雅韻”——“滄海匯江南”長三角優秀傳統音樂展演如往常一樣登臺梅隴文化館,現場座無虛席。除了本地社區居民,聽眾中有不少是浙江、江蘇等地音樂院校的學生。2015年6月,“國樂雅韻”正式開幕,此后每月一期,從未間斷。活動邀請全國各地的音樂類非遺項目,西安鼓樂、花兒、泉州南音、侗族大歌等原生態民族音樂先后亮相。

          非遺在社區的傳播傳承,關鍵離不開“創新”。“讓市民了解、熟悉、喜愛傳統文化,首先要在傳統的基礎上創新,傳統不泥古,創新不離源。”為了便于學習,羅店彩燈市級傳承人朱玲寶對傳統的扎燈方法進行了改造,由原先的綁扎法改為拼裝法,即把一個彩燈分成若干幾何圖形,分別扎制后再拼裝,“居民一學就會,扎出來的燈牢固,不松垮”。易于上手的扎燈法,極大提升了市民對彩燈的興趣,有助于推動非遺的普及傳播。

          “非遺源自社區人群,傳承傳播基于社區,創新發展也在社區。”楊浦區文化館館長張亞非說。楊浦原是大工業區,能工巧匠多,傳統技藝、傳統美術類非遺項目所占比例較大。為了鼓勵非遺項目創新發展,探索生產性保護的渠道,楊浦支持傳承人成立工作室,創辦企業,探索產業化運作。

          目前,市級項目建筑微雕已在轄區內文化產業園建立了企業,大型立體建筑微雕作品《圓明園全景》和《清明上河圖》被北京市公園管理中心收購,在中國園林博物館永久收藏,傳承人每年還協助博物館制作中國歷史上已消失的園林,供科研機構研究。江灣面花項目傳承人單獨成立了個人企業,進入全市公共文化資源配送平臺,向社區居民傳播面花制作技藝。上海花樣經傳承人成立工作室,與文化類企業合作,開發剪紙藝術作品,為區政府跨區域文化交流提供非遺類文化禮品。

          “非遺有幾個主題詞,傳人、傳承與傳統。傳人最關鍵,通過傳人來傳承,最后保護我們的傳統。”長期從事非遺保護研究的西安音樂學院特聘教授喬建中認為,非遺保護需要政府、傳承人、社會多種力量形成合力,“就像逆水而上,雖然有些非遺原來的生活場景、勞動場景不復存在了,但可以通過音視頻等方式留存,通過非遺在社區,使其與當下的人民生活緊密結合。”


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